Today, we’re excited to announce that Cloudflare is participating in the AS112 project, becoming an operator of this community-operated, loosely-coordinated anycast deployment of DNS servers that primarily answer reverse DNS lookup queries that are misdirected and create significant, unwanted load on the Internet.
With the addition of Cloudflare global network, we can make huge improvements to the stability, reliability and performance of this distributed public service.
What is AS112 project
The AS112 project is a community effort to run an important network service intended to handle reverse DNS lookup queries for private-only use addresses that should never appear in the public DNS system. In the seven days leading up to publication of this blog post, for example, Cloudflare’s 22.214.171.124 resolver received more than 98 billion of these queries — all of which have no useful answer in the Domain Name System.
Some history is useful for context. Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are essential to network communication. Many networks make use of IPv4 addresses that are reserved for private use, and devices in the network are able to connect to the Internet with the use of network address translation (NAT), a process that maps one or more local private addresses to one or more global IP addresses and vice versa before transferring the information.
Your home Internet router most likely does this for you. You will likely find that, when at home, your computer has an IP address like 192.168.1.42. That’s an example of a private use address that is fine to use at home, but can’t be used on the public Internet. Your home router translates it, through NAT, to an address your ISP assigned to your home and that can be used on the Internet.
Here are the reserved “private use” addresses designated in RFC 1918.
|10.0.0.0/8||10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255||16,777,216|
|172.16.0.0/12||172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255||1,048,576|
|192.168.0.0/16||192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255||65,536|
(Reserved private IPv4 network ranges)
Although the reserved addresses themselves are blocked from ever appearing on the public Internet, devices and programs in private environments may occasionally originate DNS queries corresponding to those addresses. These are called “reverse lookups” because they ask the DNS if there is a name associated with an address.
Reverse DNS lookup
A reverse DNS lookup is an opposite process of the more commonly used DNS lookup (which is used every day to translate a name like www.cloudflare.com to its corresponding IP address). It is a query to look up the domain name associated with a given IP address, in particular those addresses associated with routers and switches. For example, network administrators and researchers use reverse lookups to help understand paths being taken by data packets in the network, and it’s much easier to understand meaningful names than a meaningless number.
A reverse lookup is accomplished by querying DNS servers for a pointer record ( PTR). PTR records store IP addresses with their segments reversed, and by appending “.in-addr.arpa” to the end. For example, the IP address 192.0.2.1 will have the PTR record stored as 126.96.36.199.in-addr.arpa. In IPv6, PTR records are stored within the “.ip6.arpa” domain instead of “.in-addr.arpa.”. Below are some query examples using the dig command line tool.
# Lookup the domain name associated with IPv4 address 188.8.131.52 # “+short” option make it output the short form of answers only $ dig @184.108.40.206 PTR 220.127.116.11.in-addr.arpa +short hunts.ns.cloudflare.com. # Or use the shortcut “-x” for reverse lookups $ dig @18.104.22.168 -x 22.214.171.124 +short hunts.ns.cloudflare.com. # Lookup the domain name associated with IPv6 address 2606:4700:58::a29f:2c2e $ dig @126.96.36.199 PTR e.2.c.2.f.9.2.a.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.188.8.131.52.0.0.7.4.184.108.40.206.ip6.arpa. +short hunts.ns.cloudflare.com. # Or use the shortcut “-x” for reverse lookups $ dig @220.127.116.11 -x 2606:4700:58::a29f:2c2e +short hunts.ns.cloudflare.com.
The problem that private use addresses cause for DNS
The private use addresses concerned have only local significance and cannot be resolved by the public DNS. In other words, there is no way for the public DNS to provide a useful answer to a question that has no global meaning. It is therefore a good practice for network administrators to ensure that queries for private use addresses are answered locally. However, it is not uncommon for such queries to follow the normal delegation path in the public DNS instead of being answered within the network. That creates unnecessary load.
By definition of being private use, they have no ownership in the public sphere, so there are no authoritative DNS servers to answer the queries. At the very beginning, root servers respond to all these types of queries since they serve the IN-ADDR.ARPA zone.
Over time, due to the wide deployment of private use addresses and the continuing growth of the Internet, traffic on the IN-ADDR.ARPA DNS infrastructure grew and the load due to these junk queries started to cause some concern. Therefore, the idea of offloading IN-ADDR.ARPA queries related to private use addresses was proposed. Following that, the use of anycast for distributing authoritative DNS service for that idea was subsequently proposed at a private meeting of root server operators. And eventually the AS112 service was launched to provide an alternative target for the junk.
The AS112 project is born
To deal with this problem, the Internet community set up special DNS servers called “blackhole servers” as the authoritative name servers that respond to the reverse lookup of the private use address blocks 10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, 192.168.0.0/16 and the link-local address block 169.254.0.0/16 (which also has only local significance). Since the relevant zones are directly delegated to the blackhole servers, this approach has come to be known as Direct Delegation.
The first two blackhole servers set up by the project are: blackhole-1.iana.org and blackhole-2.iana.org.
Any server, including DNS name server, needs an IP address to be reachable. The IP address must also be associated with an Autonomous System Number (ASN) so that networks can recognize other networks and route data packets to the IP address destination. To solve this problem, a new authoritative DNS service would be created but, to make it work, the community would have to designate IP addresses for the servers and, to facilitate their availability, an AS number that network operators could use to reach (or provide) the new service.
The selected AS number (provided by American Registry for Internet Numbers) and namesake of the project, was 112. It was started by a small subset of root server operators, later grown to a group of volunteer name server operators that include many other organizations. They run anycasted instances of the blackhole servers that, together, form a distributed sink for the reverse DNS lookups for private network and link-local addresses sent to the public Internet.
A reverse DNS lookup for a private use address would see responses like in the example below, where the name server blackhole-1.iana.org is authoritative for it and says the name does not exist, represented in DNS responses by NXDOMAIN.
$ dig @blackhole-1.iana.org -x 192.168.1.1 +nord ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER